Author: redsaf

The World Health Organisation defines health as “a state of complete physical, mental and social well-being and not merely the absence of disease or infirmity.” It is important to note that unlike disease, which can be categorized, defined and even understood by scientific means, the concept of health is much more complex. Health is subjective and highly personal, with a wide range of interpretations. Individuals view health from different perspectives, and their perspective influences the way they behave with respect to healthy habits and lifestyle choices. The health of peoples is fundamental to their overall well-being and the enjoyment of life. It is a fundamental human right, which governments have the responsibility to promote and protect. Health includes the individual’s ability to function in their prevailing environment and to adapt to changes therein. It requires a combination of a balanced diet, proper exercise, rest and sleep, and the support of family and friends. It also requires access to medical and psychological care, as well as the education of peoples in health matters. People’s health depends on the circumstances in which they grow, live, work, play and age, including their socioeconomic position. These factors influence the development of health behaviours and interact to cause or prevent diseases, such as cancer and diabetes. They also contribute to health inequities – avoidable differences in health status seen within and between groups and countries (Commission on Social Determinants of Health 2008). A person’s health is dependent upon the quality and quantity of food they eat, their lifestyle and activity levels, their level of stress and their genetic makeup. They can also be affected by environmental factors such as air and water quality, housing and community design, and the presence of natural environments that provide recreation and leisure activities. Generally, it is believed that people have the ability to maintain their health and fitness through positive lifestyle choices. These include eating a nutritious diet, getting enough physical activity, avoiding tobacco and excessive alcohol use, and sleeping for a reasonable amount of time each night. The environment is considered to have a direct impact on a person’s health, as it influences the development of diseases and conditions, such as obesity and depression. Considering the complexity of health, it is no wonder that there are many definitions of the term. It is important for health professionals to understand the varying definitions of health, so that they can tailor their messages accordingly to ensure that people are able to follow the advice that is most appropriate for them. The most common definition of health is that it is a state of being free from disease and infirmity. However, this definition is limiting, as it does not take into account the fact that a disease or infirmity can be present in an individual without them being able to recognise it or understand its causes. A second definition is that of health as a positive concept, which is broader in scope and encompasses both the presence and absence of disease and infirmity.

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Pharmacy is the science and practice of discovering, producing, preparing, dispensing, reviewing, and monitoring medications, aiming to ensure the safe and effective use of medicines. It is a diverse science that links health sciences with pharmaceutical sciences and natural sciences. It also encompasses pharmacy education and professional advocacy. The model aims to reduce the ambiguity that is often associated with the labeling of the discipline, and it is expected to provide a platform for dialogue in moving toward consistency and rationalization of terminology in the pharmacy sector locally, nationally and internationally. Historically, the professions of pharmacy and medicine were distinct. Physicians performed the diagnosis of illnesses and prescribed treatment, while pharmacists formulated, prepared and dispensed medicines. This arrangement was encouraged by ancient Greek and Roman medicine, as well as the medieval world, and Benjamin Franklin, the founder of America’s first pharmacy, took a strong stand in keeping physicians and pharmacists separate. Today, the responsibilities of pharmacists are broad and varied. They collect and review patient histories and drug use data. They help patients select over-the-counter and herbal products, and they educate people on the proper use of these medicines. Pharmacists also perform compounding, a process of creating custom drugs. For example, if a manufacturer only provides a medication in tablet form, a compounding pharmacist could prepare it as a medicated lollipop for a patient who cannot swallow tablets. The most important task of any pharmacist is to protect patient safety. This involves ensuring that the drugs are properly labeled, and that the dosages and frequency of administration are correct for each patient. They must also identify potential contraindications, which are situations in which a drug should not be used because it would harm the patient. For instance, a person with a bleeding disorder should not take aspirin because it could lead to excess blood loss. Finally, pharmacies must comply with all relevant state and federal laws and regulations. In addition to their clinical and administrative duties, pharmacists provide counseling services to patients and medical staff. They advise them on the use of medications and recommend appropriate lifestyle changes, such as smoking cessation programs or weight loss plans. They also educate patients on drug interaction warnings and side effects. Moreover, they offer medication adherence programs, such as the Million Hearts Initiative, which encourages patients to regularly monitor and record their blood pressure readings. In order to become a pharmacist, you must complete a bachelor’s degree in pharmacy science and pass the North American Pharmacist Licensure Examination (NAPLEX) and the Multistate Pharmacy Jurisprudence Examination (MPJE). Most states also require a background check and fingerprinting. Once you have received your license, you may work at a hospital, private pharmacy or health clinic. You may also choose to open your own independent pharmacy. In addition to selling prescription drugs, some independent pharmacists also offer immunizations and healthcare consulting services. Some offer online consultations through webcam or telephone. They are also known as virtual or mail-order pharmacies.

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Cancer is a disease that occurs when abnormal cells grow and divide without control, forming tumors and disrupting normal tissue functions. Cancer can spread to other parts of the body through the blood or lymph system in a process called metastasis. Cancer is one of the leading causes of death in the world, but research and treatment advances are helping to reduce the number of deaths from the disease. A cancer diagnosis can be frightening, but it is important to remember that you are not alone. Your healthcare providers are here for you every step of the way to help you navigate your cancer journey. While no two cancers are the same, all cancers start when some cells in the body become abnormal and start to grow and divide out of control. Cells are the basic building blocks of the body that make up tissues and organs. Under normal circumstances, when a cell needs to grow or repair itself, it gets instructions from its DNA. These instructions are translated into the proteins that cells need to do their jobs. But when the genes that control this process are damaged or mutated, the instructions get distorted and the cell develops into a precancerous or cancerous cell. Cancers can form in almost any part of the body and they can affect all the body’s tissues and organs. The development of a cancer is not instantaneous; it takes time for the mutations to accumulate and lead to the uncontrolled growth of cells that forms a tumor. The genetic changes that cause cancer are usually inherited but can also happen when errors occur during cell division. They can be caused by certain environmental factors, such as radiation or chemicals, that damage cells or can be passed from parent to child during pregnancy. Most often, however, these mutations develop slowly over a person’s lifetime and increase the chance of developing cancer later in life. These genetic changes can lead to different types of cancers, and they typically affect three main groups of genes: proto-oncogenes, tumor suppressor genes, and DNA repair genes. Together, these gene mutations allow cancer cells to grow and divide more rapidly than normal cells, and they can ignore signals that normally tell them to stop dividing or to die (a process known as programmed cell death, or apoptosis). In addition, some types of cancer cells are able to break away from the original tumor and travel to other parts of the body through the blood and lymph system, where they exit the vessels and form new tumors. In these cases, the cancer is considered to be metastatic. It’s estimated that between 30 and 50% of all cancers could be prevented by avoiding risk factors, getting regular screenings, and practicing healthy habits, such as eating a nutritious diet, maintaining a healthy weight, and staying physically active. The most common cancers — like colorectal and breast cancer — are often preventable by screening for them regularly.

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Medical is a broad term that describes the components and processes of human health and well-being. It includes the study of diseases, disorders and injuries as well as their treatment and prevention. The practice of medicine is both art and science, combining the skills of the practitioner with the knowledge gained through scientific investigation. The field of medicine is constantly evolving and expanding. New advancements in technology and knowledge of evolution and genetics are influencing both medical research and clinical practice. The study of medicine covers a variety of subjects including biology, chemistry, physics and social sciences. It also includes various clinical specialties such as endocrinology, gastroenterology and hematology. Other disciplines such as conservation medicine, diving medicine and forensic medicine are part of the field of medicine as well. A key component of the practice of medicine is the creation and review of patient records. These records provide doctors with the necessary information to diagnose a disease, determine treatment options and monitor progress. The patient record may include the history of the illness, a physical exam and lab tests. It may also include x-rays and other imaging studies. To properly understand the language used in medical journals it is important to familiarize yourself with the concept of word parts. Almost all medical terms have a prefix, root and suffix. The prefix is usually derived from Latin and Greek roots, and indicates the body system or medical condition being described. The root is often a specific name for a body part or disorder, such as arthritic, concussion and cholecystitis. The suffix is a common way to make words plural in English and most modern romance languages. Medical journals publish both original and reviewed articles. The goal of most medical journals is to advance the state of medical knowledge by publishing sound scientific articles. In addition, journal editors must balance the competing goals of increasing readership and obtaining financial support from industry. These business goals can conflict with the scientific goals of advancing medical knowledge and improving patient care. When choosing a medical journal to publish in it is important to check the journal’s impact factor, which is a quantitative measure of how frequently an article is cited in other journals. Medical journal editors can find the impact factor on online databases such as the Journal Citation Reports. The most influential medical journals are those with high impact factors. These journals are those that are frequently cited by other journals, which means that when researchers read these journals they gain new insights into the subject matter. When writing a paper for a medical journal it is essential to follow the author guidelines. In many cases, these guidelines specify a specific style of reference that must be used. The most commonly used styles are the Harvard and Vancouver systems. The latter specifies that references are arranged alphabetically in the reference section, while the former uses the year of publication followed by the authors’ names.

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Health, also known as well-being or a healthy lifestyle, is an active process of becoming aware of and making choices toward a more positive, fulfilling life. It includes both physical and mental wellness. A common view of health is that it is ‘a state of complete physical, mental and social wellbeing and not merely the absence of disease or infirmity’ (WHO 1946). However, such a positive concept of health fails to take into account that few people have completely healthy lives all the time and may experience many episodes of illness in their lifetimes. An alternative view is that a person’s health is determined by a complex interplay of individual and environmental factors. These factors are grouped into a set of broad categories that can be collectively referred to as the social determinants of health. They include the socioeconomic context in which a person lives, such as their level of income, education, employment, housing, and social connections and support, as well as the environment in which they live and interact with their community and society at large. They are often described as risk and protective factors for illness. There is also a relationship between an individual’s health and their ability to realize their aspirations and satisfy their needs, as well as the capacity of individuals to adapt to changes in their environments and their own life circumstances. This is referred to as the ‘capability approach’ to health. In order to maintain optimum health, it is important to choose foods that are rich in vitamins and minerals. This includes eating a variety of vegetables and fruits, especially those that are dark green, such as broccoli, peppers, brussel sprouts, and leafy greens like kale and spinach. It is also important to drink a minimum of eight glasses of water daily and to consume good amounts of fibre, which helps with digestive functions. This can be achieved by consuming whole grains, such as brown rice, quinoa, oats and barley, or by including beans or lentils in your diet. A key element in maintaining optimal health is preventive medicine. This involves the promotion of a healthy lifestyle, with the main aims being to reduce the risk of developing ill health through the avoidance of harmful behaviours and the reduction of risks in society. This is often contrasted with reactive medicine, which involves seeking treatment after a person has become ill. It is generally agreed that the former is a more effective way of improving health. This can be achieved through primary prevention, which focuses on actions that aim to change the impact of risk factors at an individual and community level, alongside clinical preventive services such as immunization, screening programmes for disease, and treatment. It can also be achieved through secondary prevention, which aims to detect diseases at an early stage and treat them before they manifest themselves as symptoms. This is commonly seen in screening programmes for cancer and other common diseases.

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Pharmacy is the profession of preparing, dispensing and advising on medications. It is also a science that links health sciences with pharmaceutical sciences and natural sciences. Its traditional duties include preparing and dispensing prescription drugs, but pharmacists now provide many other patient care services. Pharmacists are a vital part of the healthcare team. They work to optimize drug therapy for patients and educate patients about their medicines. This includes ensuring that all medications are safe, effective and properly administered. Whether working in hospitals, community pharmacies or academia, pharmacists use their expertise to make sure that patients get the best possible care. In addition, pharmacists can help patients with selecting over-the-counter (OTC) medications and herbal products to treat common health problems. They can assist with the management of chronic conditions, including high blood pressure and diabetes. They can also advise patients about diet and exercise to improve overall health. The field of pharmacy is rapidly changing, with advances in technology allowing pharmacists to work more efficiently and safely. New tools such as electronic prescriptions, robotics for central prescription processing and nationwide prescription monitoring programs allow pharmacists to spend more time interacting with patients. These digital innovations are helping to improve medication adherence, a key goal of public health officials. The pharmacy profession has a long history, dating back to ancient Egypt. Early papyri, such as the Ebers Papyrus and Edwin Smith Papyrus, contain information on medical treatments including dosage, preparation methods and warnings. In China, the earliest known manual on medicine was the Shennong Bencao Jing, written in the 1st century AD. Medications have become an essential component of modern health care. However, there are still some barriers to the full integration of pharmacy into healthcare. As the line between physician and pharmacist continues to blur, it is important to understand how each discipline contributes to patient care. As the demand for pharmacists continues to increase, pharmacists are finding more opportunities to collaborate with their peers and expand their responsibilities beyond dispensing medications. In addition, many pharmacists are choosing to pursue board certification in an area of specialty such as Ambulatory Care, Cardiology, Compound Sterile Preparations, Geriatric or Critical Care. The aging population has increased the need for pharmacists to provide specialized services. For example, many elderly patients have complex medication regimens that require careful monitoring. Pharmacists can help these patients navigate their medications and explore ways to minimize the cost of their prescriptions. In addition, pharmacists can provide advice to older patients on how to live a healthy lifestyle. This can include advice on diet, exercise and stress management. Moreover, they can recommend general healthcare services such as flu shots and immunizations. Pharmacists can also recommend nutritional supplements and other products to meet a patient’s specific needs. These additional services can complement the role of primary care physicians and other healthcare professionals. They can also help reduce medication-related side effects. This is a valuable service that helps to enhance patient outcomes and improve quality of life.

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Cancer is a disease that begins when cells in the body begin to grow and divide without control or order. When these abnormal cells outnumber the normal cells, they create a mass of tissue called a tumor. Tumors can be either benign or cancerous, depending on the type of cell involved and where they grow in the body. Some tumors can even spread to other parts of the body. These secondary tumors are known as metastases. Normally, the DNA in each cell contains instructions that tell the cell how to grow and reproduce. During cell division, if there is a mistake in the DNA, the cell will usually stop dividing or die. However, some cancer cells are unable to stop dividing and produce new, abnormal cells. These abnormal cells can also continue to grow and multiply in an uncontrolled way, even if there are no other new normal cells to replace them. Cancerous cells can also spread into surrounding tissues or to other parts of the body through blood or lymph. There are many types of cancer, each with its own unique genetic changes. Some cancers are linked to certain habits or environmental factors, like smoking or exposure to the sun’s ultraviolet radiation. Other cancers are caused by genetic changes that occur over time, such as those that may happen as a person ages. Although a cure for cancer is rarely achieved, researchers are constantly improving treatment methods. The goal of treatment is to eliminate all the cancer cells with minimal damage to healthy cells. Currently, the most common treatments are surgery, chemotherapy and radiation therapy. Radiation therapy delivers high-energy X-rays or particles to the area of cancerous tissue. It can be delivered from outside the body with a radioactive beam, inside the body using a special capsule or in the form of a pill or liquid that you swallow (called targeted therapy). Some patients develop side effects from cancer treatment, including hair loss and loss of bone density. At HonorHealth, we help patients manage these side effects with supportive services, such as nutrition and yoga. We also offer the newest therapies to reduce the likelihood of side effects. The type and location of a cancer can have a significant impact on the patient’s symptoms, prognosis and treatment options. That’s why it’s important to report any unusual symptoms to your doctor right away. Doctors use several tests to determine if you have cancer, and what kind it is. These include a physical exam, blood and urine tests and imaging scans. Many people don’t have any symptoms when they first have cancer, which is why it’s so important to get regular medical exams and to talk to your doctor about any unusual or persistent health problems you have.

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Medical is a term that refers to any of the sciences or practices that pertain to human health and well-being. The most common modern medicine is a combination of physical therapy, pharmacology and surgery along with preventative care like vaccinations and screening tests. Most countries have a single national body that regulates the practice of medicine. Some examples are the United Kingdom’s Royal College of Physicians and the American Board of Medical Specialties. Medical education and training varies around the world, but most systems involve initial university study (typically leading to a Doctor of Medicine degree in the United States or Canada or a Bachelor of Osteopathic Medicine degree in the US), followed by supervised clinical practice, often called residency. Despite differences in training methods, most medical disciplines share some core elements: The patient-physician healing relationship is the foundation of modern medical care. Medical practitioners are guided by ethical principles including informed consent, respect for persons and the principle of justice. They are expected to keep up to date with medical knowledge and research. Medical ethics are also concerned with fairness, honesty and confidentiality. Advanced industrial countries have generally established some form of universal health care, based either on public funding and delivery or compulsory private or co-operative health insurance. There is some debate about whether such arrangements improve the overall health of a population. Primary care medical services are provided by physicians, physician assistants and nurse practitioners who have first contact with a patient seeking treatment for an illness or injury. These professionals work in physicians’ offices, clinics and patients’ homes. Their duties include taking a detailed history, examining the patient and diagnosing or treating him or her. They may refer the patient to a specialist, provide hospital care or prescribe medication. The history taken by a physician includes the chief complaint, family history and past medical history. The latter can be distinguished from the current medical history which consists of the present symptoms and their duration. Other relevant information is the patient’s current activity, occupation and hobbies. Diagnostic medical services involve laboratory and imaging examinations performed in hospitals or other specialized facilities to assist physicians in diagnosis. This can include x-rays, computed tomography, ultrasound and nuclear magnetic resonance imaging. The interpretation of these procedures is usually done by a radiologist. Some of these specialists are also involved in interventional radiology, allowing them to access the area under investigation and treat it directly. Other tertiary care medical services include burn centers, high-risk neonatal units and organ transplantation.

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Health is an aspect of a person’s life that includes not only the absence of disease, but also a person’s ability to enjoy a high quality of life and be capable of adapting to change. It is a dynamic process that depends on the interaction between an individual’s genetic, environmental and lifestyle factors. Generally, health is considered to be a state of complete physical, mental and social well-being. The World Health Organization defines it as “the enjoyment of the highest attainable standard of physical and mental health.” Various nation states endorse this definition in their constitutions, with many ensuring that the right to healthcare is one of those rights. A person can achieve a higher level of Health by following a healthy lifestyle, which involves regular exercise, balanced diet and adequate rest. The health of a person is also improved by seeking medical treatment when needed and avoiding unhealthful activities or environments. There is also a growing recognition of the importance of health promotion and the role that individuals can play in their own wellness. This approach involves a partnership between the healthcare provider and the patient, with a focus on building skills and developing the abilities of patients to make healthy choices, set goals and take action. A growing number of countries are adopting a broader, more integrated perspective on health that goes beyond medical interventions to address the root causes of poor health. This is known as the “biopsychosocial model” or the “triple helix.” The model takes into account all aspects of health, including social and psychological factors. The environment has been shown to affect a person’s health, both directly and indirectly. Physical environmental factors include access to clean air and water, safe roads and communities, and affordable housing. Social environmental factors include education, employment, family circumstances and early childhood, income, and the availability of supportive networks. Changing these factors is therefore an important strategy for improving people’s health. However, there is still a great deal that we do not know about the influence of the environment on health. This is partly due to the complexity of the factors involved, and the difficulty in quantifying them. However, a better understanding of these factors is being achieved through the use of new information technologies such as geographic information systems (GIS) and remote sensing. These techniques provide a more comprehensive picture of the environmental influences on health, and can help to identify priority areas for further research and action. This will in turn improve the delivery of healthcare and the quality of life for all. In addition, new information technologies are allowing us to link data on the environment with other sources of data in more meaningful ways, and are helping to develop and improve models for assessing, monitoring and managing environmental risks to health. This will help to ensure that healthcare services are delivered in ways that are sustainable and meet the needs of local populations. A key challenge will be to find ways of using this new information in a way that is both useful and accessible for all.

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Pharmacy is the science and practice of discovering, producing, preparing, dispensing, reviewing and monitoring medications for patients. The aim is to ensure the safe, effective and affordable use of medicines. It is a miscellaneous science as it links health sciences with pharmaceutical sciences and natural sciences. It is a profession that includes medical and scientific skills, as well as knowledge of pharmacy law and practice. Pharmacy has always been an important part of healthcare. As medicine becomes more complex, pharmacists are increasingly involved in helping doctors and patients make the best decisions about their treatment. Pharmacists also play an important role in educating people about how to take their medication properly and in promoting healthy lifestyles. A pharmacist can answer many of your questions about your medication, such as what it is for, how to take it, and what side effects you might experience. They can also help you find over-the-counter medicines that may be appropriate for your symptoms or condition. Many pharmacies offer extended opening hours in the evening and at weekends. This is especially helpful if you have trouble getting to the pharmacy during normal business hours. Some even provide home delivery services. The first thing to look for in a trustworthy online pharmacy is a valid prescription from a doctor. You should also make sure the site uses secure encryption to protect your personal information. Additionally, it should be licensed in your country. Finally, the website should have a physical address in the United States and a customer service line that’s open during business hours. In addition to ensuring that the medicine you get is safe and effective, a trusted pharmacy will also keep track of your entire medical history so that any potential problems can be quickly identified. For instance, if you have high blood pressure, your pharmacist can check to see if any new medications or supplements you’re taking could affect it. They can also give you advice on how to control your blood pressure through diet and exercise. Pharmacists can also help you with your other health concerns. They can advise you on how to quit smoking, manage your diabetes, or lower your cholesterol levels. They can also offer vaccinations and other health checks. In fact, one study found that community pharmacies that offered counselling to patients on their medications increased adherence by 86%. Another important service that pharmacies provide is the disposal of unwanted or expired medication. It is unsafe to simply throw these substances away in the trash or flush them down the toilet. Instead, you can take them to your local pharmacy, which will safely dispose of them for you. They can also provide a Yellow Card scheme, which allows you to report any suspected side effects of certain medicines. They can then review the data and alert the Medicines and Healthcare products Regulatory Agency (MHRA) about any potentially harmful reactions. The MHRA can then investigate and potentially ban the drug from sale in the UK.

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